Professor Llewelyn Hughes

Llewelyn is a Professor at the Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University (ANU). He is also Research Director for GR-Japan, a government affairs and public policy consultancy focused on the Japanese market ( He can be found on LinkedInTwitter, or email.

His academic work is on how public policies affect, and are affected by, energy markets. In 2014 his book Globalizing Oil was published through the Business and Public Policy series with Cambridge University Press. In it he examined why industrialised countries transformed the policies they used to manage energy security risks in oil markets over the 1980s and 1990s, including detailed case chapters on France, Japan, and the United States.

More recently he began to investigate how and why energy policies are changing in response to the problem of climate change, with a particular focus on the Asia-Pacific region. An ongoing project examines how the rise of Global Value Chains affect the ability of governments to promote green growth industries, beginning with photovoltaics and next-generation vehicles. The project has been funded by the Social Science Research Council, the East-West Centre, and the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University. A second project examines how exposure to extreme weather events affects beliefs in climate change.

His work is published or forthcoming in Annual Review of Political ScienceClimatic ChangeEnergy Policy and the Social SciencesEnvironmental Science & PolicyInternational SecurityInternational Studies QuarterlyJournal of East Asian Studies, and other academic journals, as well as in numerous policy outlets. Many are available for download from his website, or from ResearchGate.

He has previously worked at the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University (GWU) in Washington DC, and before that the Consortium for Energy Policy Research at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He has also been a visiting fellow at the Institute of Advanced Sustainability Studies in Potsdam, the Environmental Policy Research Centre (Forschungszentrums für Umweltpolitik) at Freie Universität, the Centre of Geopolitics of Energy and Raw Materials (CGEMP) at Université Paris Dauphine, Tokyo Foundation, Japan Business Federation (Keidanren), and the Japan Institute for Energy Economics (IEEJ).


Llewelyn Hughes, Globalizing Oil: Firms and Oil Market Governance in France, Japan, and the United States(Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press - Business and Public Policy Series, 2014), pp. 265. Paperback 2016.

Academic papers and book chapters:


Ian Cronshaw, Quentin Grafton, and Llewelyn Hughes, “Increasing the Use of Natural Gas in the Asia-Pacific Region,” Council of Foreign Relations (CFR) Discussion Paper. Available at:

Llewelyn Hughes and Rainer Quitzow, “Low-Carbon Technologies, National Innovation Systems, and Global Production Networks: The State of Play,” in Andreas Goldthau, Caroline Kuzemko and Michael Keating (eds.) Handbook on the IPE of Energy and Resources. Forthcoming.

Jonas Meckling and Llewelyn Hughes, “Green Protectionism: Global Supply Chains and Business Power in Renewable Energy,” New Political Economy (2017). Forthcoming.

Llewelyn Hughes and Jonas Meckling, “The Politics of Renewable Energy Trade: The US-China Solar Dispute,” Energy Policy, Vol. 105 (2017), 256-262.

Jonas Meckling and Llewelyn Hughes, “Globalizing Solar: Industry Specialization and Firm Demands for Trade Protection,” International Studies Quarterly (2017). (published online 10 May 2017)


David Konisky, Llewelyn Hughes, and Charles Kaylor, “Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Concern,” Climatic Change, Vol. 134, No. 4 (2016), 533-547.

Llewelyn Hughes and Eugene Gholz, “Energy, Coercive Diplomacy and Sanctions,” in Thijs Van de Graaf (eds.) Handbook of the International Political Economy of Energy (London: Palgrave, 2016), 487-504.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Renegotiating Japan’s Energy Compact,” in Carol Hager and Cristoph Stefes (eds.) Germany’s Energy Transition: A Comparative Perspective (London: Palgrave, 2016), 165-184.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Japan: Dominated by Fukushima and Tackling Hard Problems in Decarbonisation” in Sybille Röhrkasten, Sonja Thielges, Rainer Quitzow (eds.), The G20’s Potential for Advancing a Global Transition Towards Sustainable Energy, Institute of Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Berlin, 145-50.

David Konisky, Llewelyn Hughes, and Charles Kaylor “Will Extreme Weather Events Get Americans to Act on Climate Change?” (with ). The Conversation February 5, 2016. Available at:

Llewelyn Hughes and Crystal Prior, “Domestic Interests and “Strategic Benefits” in Australia-Japan Submarine Deal,” (with Crystal Pryor) Center for International Studies (CSIS) Pacific Forum No 11, January 27, 2016. Available at:


Llewelyn Hughes and Johannes Urpelainen, “Interests, Institutions, and Climate Policy: Explaining the Choice of Policy Instruments for the Energy Sector,” Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 54 (2015), 52-63.

Llewelyn Hughes and Austin Long, “Is There An Oil Weapon? National Security Implications of Changes in the Structure of the International Oil Market,” International Security (Winter-Spring 2014/2015). Forthcoming.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Japan’s Energy Conundrum,” in Robert Pekkanen, Steven R. Reed, and Ethan Scheiner (eds.), Japan Decides 2014: The Japanese General Election (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), 199-210.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Japan’s Public-Private Regime in Energy Security,” in Bo Kong and Jae H. Ku (eds.), Regime Formation in Northeast Asia: the Past, Present, and Prospect of Regional Energy Security Cooperation (London: Routledge, 2015), 62-85.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Why Japan Deserves Some Praise on Climate,” Center for International Studies (CSIS) Japan Chair Platform, June 19, 2015. Available at: (Republished in the East Asia Forum).

Llewelyn Hughes and Jonas Meckling, “Free Trade for Green Trade: To Support Clean Power, Open Up Trade In Green Technology,”, August 4, 2015. Available at:

Llewelyn Hughes and Austin Long, “Reconceptualizing the Link between Energy and Security,” September 6, 2015. Available at: (Republished at Brookings Middle East Politics and Policy)

Llewelyn Hughes, “Abe and Japan’s Energy Conundrum,” East Asia Forum, March 6, 2015. Available at:


Llewelyn Hughes, “The Limits of Energy Independence: Assessing the Implications of Oil Abundance for US Foreign Policy,” Energy Policy and the Social Sciences Vol. 1, No. 3 (2014), pp. 55-64.

Llewelyn Hughes, Jeffry Lantis and Mireya Solis, “The Life Cycle of International Regimes,” Journal of International Organizations Studies Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014), pp. 85-115.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Don’t Panic! China and the Second Energy Revolution,” Book Roundtable for Elizabeth Economy and Michael Levi, By All Means Necessary: How China’s Resource Quest is Changing the World(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), in Asia Policy (July 2014), pp. 162-165.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Energy and Environmental Security, and the Role of Okinawa,” in Akikazu Hashimoto, Mike Mochizuki, and Kurayoshi Takara (eds.), The Okinawa Question: Futenma, the US-Japan Alliance, and Regional Security (Washington DC: Sigur Center for Asian Studies, 2014), pp. 103-110.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Black Gold: What Does Oil Abundance Mean for the United States and its Foreign Policy?” Advance December 2014, 33-35.


Llewelyn Hughes and Phillip Lipscy, “The Politics of Energy,” Annual Review of Political Science Vol. 16 (2013), pp. 449-469.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Japan’s Radical Incrementalism in Energy,” Center for International Studies (CSIS) Japan Chair Platform, May 2013.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Promoting Standards Harmonization in the Fight Against Climate Change,” Asia-Pacific Bulletin, East-West Center, April 2013.


Llewelyn Hughes, “Climate Converts: Institutional Redeployment and Public Investment in Energy in Japan,” Journal of East Asian Studies Vol. 12, No.1 (2012), pp. 89-118.

Llewelyn Hughes, “Exploring Regional Regimes for Climate Change,” Japan Economic Forum Spotlight, March/April 2012.


Llewelyn Hughes, “Resource Nationalism in the Asia-Pacific: Why Does it Matter?” National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR) Special Report #31 (2011), pp. 7-14.


Llewelyn Hughes, “Review: Unequal Allies? United States Security and Alliance Policy Toward Japan 1945-1960, by John Swenson-Wright,” in Journal of East Asian Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2008), pp. 337-339.


Llewelyn Hughes, “Why Japan Won’t Go Nuclear (yet) – an Examination of the Domestic and International Constraints on the Nuclearization of Japan,” International Security Vol. 31, No. 4 (2007), pp. 67-96.