Associate Professor Christopher Ballard

Senior Fellow, School of Culture, History & Language

My current interests revolve around indigenous Melanesian historicities - their transformation through cross-cultural encounters; their representation through various media, including film and fiction; and their articulation with contemporary challenges such as land reform, large natural resource projects, and cultural heritage management planning. I am also engaged, together with Bronwen Douglas, in an ARC Discovery Project on "European Naturalists and the Constitution of Human Difference in Oceania". Publications under preparation include an edited collection on the history of racial science in Oceania, and a monograph on violence and first contact in the New Guinea Highlands.

Career highlights

UNCEN-ANU Baseline Studies Project at the Freeport mine, Irian Jaya (1996-98); Visiting positions as Directeur de Recherche, CNRS, Marseille (1999-2000), and as Directeur de Recherche, EHESS, Paris (2001); nomination for World Heritage status of Chief Roi Mata's Domain on behalf of the Republic of Vanuatu (2007).

Research interests

Resource ownership and land rights; violence and human rights; racism, concepts of "race" and colonial encounters; social and agricultural transformations; narrative and memory; sacred geography; theory in the disciplines of history, anthropology, archaeology and geography; regional interests in eastern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu.

  • Ballard, C, McDonnell, S & Calandra, M 2020, 'Confronting the Naturalness of Disaster in the Pacific', Anthropological Forum, vol. 30, no. 1-2, pp. 1-14.
  • Ballard, C, Wilson, M, Nojima, Y et al. 2019, 'Disaster as Opportunity? Cyclone Pam and the Transmission of Cultural Heritage [IN PRESS]', Anthropological Forum, vol. 0, no. 0.
  • Tutorsky, A, Govor, E & Ballard, C 2019, 'Miklouho-Maclay's Legacy in Russian- and English-Language Academic Research, 1992-2017', Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 112-121.
  • Ballard, C & Douglas, B 2017, '"Rough Justice:" Punitive expeditions in Oceania', Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 11pp..
  • Ballard, C 2016, 'Explorers & co. in interior New Guinea, 1872-1928', in Tiffany Shellam. Maria Nugent, Shino Konishi and Allison Cadzow (ed.), Brokers and boundaries : colonial exploration in indigenous territory, ANU Press, Canberra, pp. 185-212.
  • Ballard, C 2015, Port Vila: disaster capital of the world.
  • Bourke, R & Ballard, C 2015, Planning ahead to reduce feast and famine after natural disasters.
  • Ballard, C 2014, 'Technologies of transmission', HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 511-515.
  • Ballard, C & Wilson, M 2014, 'Pacific Monumentalism', in Helene Martinsson-Wallin and Timothy Thomas (ed.), Studies in Global Archaeology no. 20, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, pp. 77-98.
  • Ballard, C 2014, 'Book review: Landscapes Beyond Land: Routes, Aesthetics, Narratives. A. Arnason, N. Ellison, J. Vergunst, A. Whitehouse (eds.)', Australian Journal of Anthropology, The, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 123-125.
  • Ballard, C 2014, 'Book review: POLYNESIANS IN AMERICA: Pre-Columbian Contacts with the New World. Edited by Terry L. Jones et al.', Pacific Affairs, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 200-202.
  • Ballard, C 2014, 'Book review: Oceania at the Tropenmuseum, by David van Duuren, Steven Vink, Daan van Dartel, Hanneke Hollander, and Denise Frank', The Contemporary Pacific, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 232-234.
  • Ballard, C 2014, 'Book review: Polynesians in America: Pre-Columbian Contacts with the New World', Pacific Affairs, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 200-202.
  • Ballard, C 2014, 'Oceanic Historicities', The Contemporary Pacific, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 96-124.
  • Trau, A, Ballard, C & Wilson, M 2012, 'Bafa Zon: localising World Heritage at Chief Roi Mata's Domain, Vanuatu', International Journal of Heritage Studies, vol. 2012, pp. 1-18.
  • Ballard, C 2013, 'Book review: Geismar, Haidy, and Anita Herle: Moving Images', Anthropos, vol. 108, pp. 1-1.
  • Ballard, C 2013, 'The return of the past: on drawing and dialogic history', The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 136-148.
  • Ballard, C, Denham, T & Haberle, S 2013, 'Wetland archaeology in the highlands of New Guinea', in Francesco Menotti and Aidan O’Sullivan (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Wetland Archaeology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 231-248.
  • Le Meur, P, Ballard, C, Banks, G et al 2013, 'Two islands, four states: Comparing resource governance regimes in the Southwest Pacific', 2nd International Conference on Social Responsibility in Mining, ed. Jacques Wiertz, Center for Social Responsibility in Mining, Chile, pp. 191-199.
  • Ballard, C, Denham, T & Haberle, S 2013, 'Wetland Archaeology in the Highlands of New Guinea', in Francesco Menotti and Aidan O’Sullivan (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Wetland Archaeology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 231-248.
  • Ballard, C 2012, 'Book Reviews; Intimate Strangers: Friendship, Exchange and Pacific Encounters; Islanders: The Pacific in the Age of Empire', International Journal of Maritime History, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 440-443.
  • Ballard, C 2012, 'Book review: Photography, Early Cinema and Colonial Modernity: Frank Hurley's synchronized lecture entertainments. By Robert Dixon', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 527-528.
  • Wilson, M, Ballard, C, Matanik, R et al 2012, 'Community as the First C: Conservation and Development through Tourism at Chief Roi Mata's Domain, Vanuatu', in Anita Smith (ed.), World Heritage in a Sea of Islands: Pacific 2009 Programme, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Paris, France, pp. 68-73.
  • Ballard, C & Wilson, M 2012, 'Unseen monuments: Managing Melanesian cultural landscapes', in Ken Taylor and Jane L. Lennon (ed.), Managing Cultural Landscapes, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, Great Britain, pp. 130-153.
  • Douglas, B & Ballard, C 2012, 'Race, Place and Civilisation: Colonial Encounters and Governance in Greater Oceania', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 1-18.
  • Govor, E & Ballard, C 2012, 'A mirror in the South Seas: Russian perspectives on New Caledonia during the nineteenth century', in Frederic Angleviel (ed.), La Mélanésie. Actualités et Études, l'Harmattan, Paris, France, pp. 155-176.
  • Ballard, C 2012, 'Book Review: Fears of loss, tears of joy: Raun Raun Theatre and its role in the construction of a national culture in Papua New Guinea', Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 132-133.
  • Bainton, N, Ballard, C & Gillespie, K 2012, 'The End of the Beginning? Mining, sacred geographies, memory and performance in Lihir', The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 23(1), pp. 1-28.
  • Bainton, N, Ballard, C, Gillespie, K et al 2011, 'Stepping Stones Across the Lihir Islands: Developing Cultural Heritage Management in the Context of a Gold-Mining Operation', International Journal of Cultural Property, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 81-110.
  • Ballard, C 2011, 'Book Review: Papua Road Map: Negotiating the Past, Improving the Present and Securing the Future', Asia Pacific World, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 145-146.
  • Ballard, C 2011, 'Shepherd (iles)', in (ed.), 101 mots pour comprendre le Vanuatu, Groupe de Recherche sur l'Histoire Océanienne Contemporaine/Délégation de la Commission Européenne au Vanuatu / Sun Productions, New Caledonia, pp. 195-196pp.
  • Ballard, C 2011, 'Roy Mata', in (ed.), 101 mots pour comprendre le Vanuatu, Groupe de Recherche sur l'Histoire Océanienne Contemporaine/Délégation de la Commission Européenne au Vanuatu / Sun Productions, New Caledonia, pp. 187-188pp.
  • Wilson, M, Ballard, C & Kalotiti, D 2011, 'Chief Roi Mata's Domain: Challenges For A World Heritage Property In Vanuatu', Historic Environment, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 5-11.
  • Ballard, C 2010, 'Book Review: Chasseurs de diables et collecteurs d'art. Tentatives de conversion des Asmat par les missionnaires pionniers protestants et catholiques', Anthropos, vol. 105, pp. 652-653.
  • Ballard, C 2010, 'Synthetic Histories: Possible Futures for Papuan Pasts', Reviews in Anthropology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 232-257.
  • Ballard, C 2010, 'Book Review: TO THE ISLANDS: White Australians and the Malay Archipelago since 1788', Pacific Affairs, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 19-20.
  • Ballard, C 2010, 'Watching First Contact', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 21-36.
  • Ballard, C & Landman, J 2010, 'An Ocean of Images: Film and History in the Pacific', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 1-20.
  • Douglas, B & Ballard, C 2010, 'Book Review Forum: Complex Intersections: the Science of Race and Oceania', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 272-75.
  • Alhamid, H, Kanowski, P & Ballard, C 2009, 'Forest Management and Conflict: the Case of the Rendani Protection Forest in Papua', in Budy R Resosudarmo and Frank Jotzo (ed.), Working with Nature against Poverty: Development, Resources and the Environment in Eastern Indonesia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Singapore, pp. 226-247.
  • Ballard, C 2009, 'Book Review: Yali's Question: sugar, culture and history', South Pacific Journal of Philosophy and Culture, vol. 10, pp. 146-147.
  • Ballard, C 2009, 'Book review: The Future of Indigenous Museums: perspectives from the Southwest Pacific', Visual Anthropology Review, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 67-69.
  • Ballard, C & Banks, G 2009, 'Between a rock and a hard place: corporate strategy at the Freeport mine in Papua, 2001-2006', in Budy R Resosudarmo and Frank Jotzo (ed.), Working with Nature against Poverty: Development, Resources and the Environment in Eastern Indonesia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Singapore, pp. 147-177.
  • Ballard, C 2009, 'Book review: Christianity, Islam, and Nationalism in Indonesia', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 375-77.
  • Alhamid, H, Ballard, C & Kanowski, P 2009, 'Forests for the People?: Special autonomy, community forestry cooperatives and the apparent return of customary rights in Papua', in Carol Warren & John F McCarthy (ed.), Community, Environment and Local governance in Indonesia: Locating the Commonweal, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon and New York, pp. 145-165.
  • Ballard, C 2009, 'The art of encounter: Verisimilitude in the imaginary exploration of interior New Guinea, 1863-1876', in Margaret Jolly, Serge Tcherkezoff, Darrell Tryon (ed.), Oceanic encounters: exchange, desire, violence, ANU ePress, Canberra Australia, pp. 221-257.
  • Ballard, C 2009, Exhibition Review: Voyages of the Pacific ancestors: Vaka Moana, reCollections (Journal of the National Museum of Australai).
  • Govor, E & Ballard, C 2009, 'N.N. Miklouho-Maclay as Anthropologist: the 1879 New Hebrides trip', Sydney University Museums News, issue 17, 2009, p. 7
  • Thieberger, N & Ballard, C 2008, 'Daniel Macdonald and the 'compromise literary dialect' in Efate, central Vanuatu', Oceanic Linguistics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 365-382.
  • Ballard, C 2008, '"Oceanic negroes": Early British anthropology of Papuans, 1820-1869', in Bronwen Douglas & Chris Ballard (ed.), Foreign Bodies: Oceania and the Science of Race 1750-1940, ANU ePress, Canberra Australia, pp. 157-201.
  • Ballard, C 2008, 'The cultivation of difference in Oceania', in Bronwen Douglas & Chris Ballard (ed.), Foreign Bodies: Oceania and the Science of Race 1750-1940, ANU ePress, Canberra Australia, pp. 339-343.
  • Douglas, B & Ballard, C, eds, 2008, Foreign Bodies: Oceania and the Science of Race 1750-1940, ANU ePress, Canberra Australia.
  • Ballard, C, Wilson, M & Trau, A 2008, Chief Roi Mata's Domain, Island Spirits.
  • Ballard, C 2007, 'Champion, Ivan Francis (1904-1989)', in Di Langmore (ed.), Australian dictionary of biography. Volume 17 (1981-1990 A-K), Melbourne University Press (an imprint of Melbourne University Publishing), Melbourne, pp. 203-204.
  • Ballard, C 2007, The great Mangaliliu land grab, The Independent (Vanuatu).
  • Ballard, C 2006, 'Book Review: Early Visitors in Easter Island', Journal of Pacific History, vol. tba, p. 122.
  • Ballard, C 2006, 'The Last Unknown: Gavin Souter and the Historiography of New Guinea', in Doug Munro and Brij V Lal (ed.), Texts and Contexts: Reflections in Pacific Island Historiography, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawai'i, pp. 238-249.
  • Ballard, C 2006, 'Strange alliance: Pygmies in the colonial imaginary', World Archaeology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 133-151.
  • Ballard, C 2006, 'Review of An Anthropologist in Papua: the photography of F.E. Williams, 1922-39 by Michael W. Young and Julia Clark', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 111-12.
  • Paull, D, Banks, G, Ballard, C et al 2006, 'Monitoring the Environmental Impacts of Mining in Remote Locations through Remotely Sensed Data', Geocarto International, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 33-42.
  • Ballard, C 2006, Hat Island: world heritage, and tourism, or expatriate speculation?, Vanuatu Daily Post.
  • Ballard, C 2006, Seeds of Papuan identity born of suffering, Sydney Morning Herald .
  • Ballard, C 2006, Tied to the cabinet of curiosities, Times Literary Supplement.
  • Ballard, C 2005, 'Still good to think with: the sweet potato in Oceania', in Chris Ballard, Paula Brown, R. Michael Bourke and Tracy Harwood (ed.), The Sweet Potato in Oceania: a reappraisal, Oceania Publications and University of Pittsburgh, Rosebery, NSW, Australia, pp. 1-13.
  • Ballard, C 2005, 'Review of Le Grand Ocean. Lespace et le temps du Pacific Serge Dunis (ed.)', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 361-62.
  • Ballard, C 2005, 'Review of Raiding the Land of the Foreigners: The Limits of the Nation on an Indonesian Frontier by Danilyn Rutherford (2003)', The Contemporary Pacific, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 243-45.
  • Ballard, C 2005, 'Book Review: Rock Art in West Papua', Archaeology in Oceania, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 78-79.
  • Ballard, C, Brown, P, Bourke, R et al, eds, 2005, The Sweet Potato in Oceania: a reappraisal, Oceania Publications and University of Pittsburgh, Rosebery, NSW, Australia.
  • Ballard, C, Bradley, R & Myhre, L 2004, 'The ship as symbol in the prehistory of Scandinavia and Southeast Asia', World Archaeology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 385-403.
  • Ballard, C 2004, 'Book review: In Colonial New Guinea: anthropological perspectives', Pacific Affairs, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 687-688.
  • Denham, T & Ballard, C 2003, 'Jack Golson and the investigation of prehistoric agriculture in Highland New Guinea: recent work and future prospects', Archaeology in Oceania, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 129-134.
  • Ballard, C 2003, 'Making history: event, memory and narrative in the New Guinea Highlands', in Isabelle Merle and Michel Naepels (ed.), Les rivages du temps. Histoire et anthropologie du Pacifique, l'Harmattan, Paris, pp. 111-134.
  • Ballard, C & Banks, G 2003, 'Resource wars: the anthropology of mining', Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 32, pp. 287-313.
  • Ballard, C 2003, 'Writing (pre)history: narrative and archaeological explanation in the New Guinea Highlands', Archaeology in Oceania, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 135-148.
  • Ballard, C 2002, 'Adrift in the Pacific? A comment on Coffmans Voyagers of the Pacific', Rock Art Research, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 97-98.
  • Ballard, C 2002, Policy Paralysis in Papua, pp. 15-18pp.
  • Ballard, C 2002, 'Book review: Archipelago: the islands of Indonesia from the nineteenth-century discoveries of Alfred Russel Wallace to the fate of forests and reefs in the twenty-first century, by Gavan Daws and Mary Fujita', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 330-331.
  • Ballard, C 2002, 'The signature of terror: violence, memory and landscape at Freeport', in Bruno David and Meredith Wilson (ed.), Inscribed Landscapes: marking and making place, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, pp. 13-26.
  • Ballard, C 2002, 'The denial of traditional land rights in West Papua', Cultural Survival Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 3 Fall, pp. 39-43.
  • Ballard, C 2002, 'Melanesia in review, issues and events, 2001: West Papua', The Contemporary Pacific, vol. 14, no. 2 Fall, pp. 467-476.
  • Ballard, C 2002, 'A history of Huli society and settlement in the Tari region, in Bryant J Allen (ed.) Health and Environment in the Tari Area. Special Issue', Papua New Guinea Medical Journal, vol. 45, no. 1/2, pp. 8-14.
  • Ballard, C 2002, 'Book review: Social Impact Analysis: an applied anthropology manual, by Laurence R Goldman', Pacific Economic Bulletin, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 154-156.
  • Ballard, C 2002, 'Book review: On the Road of the Winds: an archaeological history of the Pacific Islands before European contact', Art Monthly Australia (AMA), vol. 2, no. 2, p. 164.
  • Ballard, C 2002, 'Comment on Polly Wiessner, The Vines of Complexity', Current Anthropology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 253-254.
  • Allen, B, Ballard, C & Lowes, E, eds, 2002, Asia Pacific Viewpoint Vol 42(2-3) special issue: Agricultural Transformation and Intensification, Special Issue 42(2-3).
  • Ballard, C 2002, Human Rights and the Mining Industry in Indonesia: a baseline study, tba.
  • Ballard, C 2002, Paradise betrayed: correspondence, Quarterly Essay .
  • Ballard, C 2001, 'The visual exploration of New Guinea', in Chris Ballard, Steven Vink and Anton Ploeg (ed.), Race to the Snow: Photography and the exploration of Dutch New Guinea, 1907-1936, KIT Publishers, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 7-9.
  • Ballard, C 2001, 'A.F.R. Wollaston and the Utakwa River Mountain Papuan skulls', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 117-126.
  • Ballard, C 2001, Tom Beanal; This community leader won his spurs through conflict with Freeport, pp. 12pp.
  • Allen, B & Ballard, C 2001, 'Beyond intensification? Reconsidering agricultural transformations', Asia Pacific Viewpoint, vol. 42, no. 2/3, pp. 157-162.
  • Ballard, C, Vink, S & Ploeg, A, eds, 2001, Race to the Snow: Photography and the exploration of Dutch New Guinea, 1907-1936, KIT Publishers, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  • Ballard, C 2001, 'The Colijn Expedition to the Carstensz Peaks (1936)', in Chris Ballard, Steven Vink and Anton Ploeg (ed.), Race to the Snow: Photography and the exploration of Dutch New Guinea, 1907-1936, KIT Publishers, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 35-41, 73-82, 90.
  • Ballard, C 2001, 'The Images, history and memory: mountains and people since 1936', in Chris Ballard, Steven Vink and Anton Ploeg (ed.), Race to the Snow: Photography and the exploration of Dutch New Guinea, 1907-1936, KIT Publishers, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 43-45, 83-85.
  • Ballard, C 2001, 'Wetland drainage and agricultural transformations in the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea', Asia Pacific Viewpoint, vol. 42, no. 2/3, pp. 287-304.
  • Ballard, C 2001, 'The British expeditions to Dutch New Guinea (1910-11, 1912-13)', in Chris Ballard, Steven Vink and Anton Ploeg (ed.), Race to the Snow: Photography and the exploration of Dutch New Guinea, 1907-1936, KIT Publishers, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 27-34, 65-72, 88-89.
  • Ballard, C 2001, 'Book Review: Recent writing on West Papua', Inside Indonesia, vol. July-September, no. 67, p. 33.
  • Ballard, C 2001, 'Neither Asian nor Pacific: West New Guinea's uneasy border identity', IIAS Newsletter, vol. 24 February, p. 13.
  • Ballard, C 2000, 'The Fire Next Time: the conversion of the Huli apocalypse', Ethnohistory, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 205-225.
  • Ballard, C 2000, 'O'Malley, Louis James', in J Ritchie, D Langmore (ed.), Australian Dictionary of Biography (Vol 15), Melbourne University Press (an imprint of Melbourne University Publishing), Melbourne Australia, pp. 534-535pp.
  • Ballard, C 2000, 'Condemned to repeat history? ENSO-related drought and famine in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, 1997-98', in Grove, R H; Chappell, J (ed.), El Nino, history and crisis: Studies from the Asia-Pacific Region, The White Horse Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 132-148.
  • Ballard, C & Nihill, M, eds, 2000, Steel to Stone: A Chronicle of Colonialism in the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Ballard, C 2000, 'Book review: Perspectives on the Bird's Head of Irian Jaya, Indonesia', The Contemporary Pacific, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 547-549.
  • Ballard, C 2000, 'Book review: Malinowski's Kiriwina: Fieldwork Photography, 1915-1918', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 238-239.
  • Ballard, C 2000, 'Collecting pygmies: the Tapiro and the British Ornithologists Union Expedition to Dutch New Guinea, 1910-1911', in O?Hanlon, M; Welsch, R L (ed.), Hunting the gatherers: ethnographic collectors, agents, and agency in Melanesia, Berghahn Books, Oxford, pp. 127-154.
  • Ballard, C 2000, Competing interests at the Freeport Mine in Irian Jaya, International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS).
  • Ballard, C 1999, 'Blanks in the writing: possible histories for West New Guinea', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 149-155.
  • Ballard, C 1999, 'Book review: The Emperor's Naked Army Marches On: Yukiyukite Shingun', Journal of Pacific History, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 136-137.
  • Ballard, C & Clark, J 1999, 'Blurred boundaries and transformed identities: myth and ritual in the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea', The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1-5.
  • Ballard, C 1999, 'Book review: Topics Relating to Netherlands New Guinea. Irian Jaya Source Materials', Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia and Oceania), vol. 155, no. 4, pp. 683-84.
  • Ballard, C 1999, White women's dreaming, Amida.